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Present Tense

A Verb that refers to the present time is said to be in the Present Tense. lt has four forms :-

(A) The Present lndefinite.
---- It is used :

(a) To express   what is actually taking place at the present moment; as,
1.
l learn my lesson.       2. She sings a song.

(b) To express a habit or a custom  ; as,

1. We get up early in the morning.

2. Good Muslims pray five times a day.

(C ) To describe some act as a Historic Present; as,

Pakistan comes into existence on the 14th of August, 1947.

( d )To express a universal truth  ; as,

1.  God is one                     2. Water keeps its level.

(e) To introduce a quotation; as,

Allah says, “Indeed We have made the Quran easy to understand."   (The Holy Quran).

(B) The Present Continuous. ---- lt is used to denote an action that is going on at the time of speaking; as,

1. it is raining.   2. Boys are playing football.

(C) The Present Perfect.

It is used:-

(i) To denote an action that has just beer completed; as,

1. He has worked the sum.

2. I have sold my bicycle.

(ii) To connect a compIeted event in some sense or other with the present time; as,

We have lived here ten years . (lt shows that we are still living here).

(D) The Present Perfect Continuous.

It is used to indicate an action that began in the past and is still going on; as,

1. it has been raining since 4 o’clock.

2. We have been playing hockey for twenty minutes.

The Prepositions since and for are used to denote)a point of time and a period of time respectively.

The table on this and the next page shows the Present Tense in Different forms.

When we add -ing to the First Form of the Verb (as, reading seeping and laughing), the word so formed is called the Present Participle. lt shows that an action is unfinished and is used in making Continuous Tenses; (as, am going, was going, will be going).

The past Participle is formed by adding -d, -ed, -t, -en or-ne the First Form of the Verb; (as, heard, clothed, burnt, beaten and born It shows that an action is already completed.

The Perfect Participle is formed by adding having or having seen to the Third Form of the Verb (as, having seen or having been seen) and shows that an action has just been completed.

These are the three kinds of Participles. Remember that the Participle (also called a Verbal Adjective) is formed from a Verb a used as an Adjective; as,

  1. Boiling water is very hot.
  2. 2. A burnt child dreads the fire.

But when the word formed by adding “-ing” to the First Form of the Verb is used as a Noun, it is called the Gerund or the Verbal Noun; as,

1. Walking is a good exercise.   2. I hate begging.

Also remember that a Participle must have a proper “Subject of Reference”.  Thus it is wrong to say: Walking on the road, my foot slipped. It should be: Walking on the road, I slipped my foot.

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