(a) To express what is actually
taking place at the present moment; as,
1. l learn my lesson. 2. She sings
(b) To express a habit or a custom ; as,
1. We get up early in the morning.
2. Good Muslims pray five times a day.
(C ) To describe some act as a Historic Present;
Pakistan comes into existence on the 14th of August,
( d )To express a universal truth ; as,
1. God is one 2. Water keeps
(e) To introduce a quotation; as,
Allah says, “Indeed We have made the Quran easy
to understand." (The Holy Quran).
(B) The Present Continuous. ---- lt is used
to denote an action that is going on at the time
of speaking; as,
1. it is raining. 2. Boys are playing football.
(C) The Present Perfect.
It is used:-
(i) To denote an action that has just beer completed;
1. He has worked the sum.
2. I have sold my bicycle.
(ii) To connect a compIeted event in some sense
or other with the present time; as,
We have lived here ten years . (lt shows that we
are still living here).
(D) The Present Perfect Continuous.
It is used to indicate an action that began in
the past and is still going on; as,
1. it has been raining since 4 o’clock.
2. We have been playing hockey for twenty minutes.
The Prepositions since and for are used to denote)a
point of time and a period of time respectively.
The table on this and the next page shows the Present
Tense in Different forms.
When we add -ing to the First Form of the Verb
(as, reading seeping and laughing), the word so
formed is called the Present Participle. lt shows
that an action is unfinished and is used in making
Continuous Tenses; (as, am going, was going, will
The past Participle is formed by adding -d, -ed,
-t, -en or-ne the First Form of the Verb; (as, heard,
clothed, burnt, beaten and born It shows that an
action is already completed.
The Perfect Participle is formed by adding
having or having seen to the Third Form of the Verb
(as, having seen or having been seen) and shows
that an action has just been completed.
These are the three kinds of Participles. Remember
that the Participle (also called a Verbal Adjective)
is formed from a Verb a used as an Adjective; as,
- Boiling water is very hot.
- 2. A burnt child dreads the fire.
But when the word formed by adding “-ing” to the
First Form of the Verb is used as a Noun, it is
called the Gerund or the Verbal Noun; as,
1. Walking is a good exercise. 2. I hate begging.
Also remember that a Participle must have a proper
“Subject of Reference”. Thus it is wrong to say:
Walking on the road, my foot slipped. It should
be: Walking on the road, I slipped my foot.